# The ‘odemodeling’ R package

#### 21 Feb 2022

This vignette demonstrates core functionality of the package.

library(odemodeling)
#> Attached odemodeling 0.2.1.
library(ggplot2)
#> Warning: package 'ggplot2' was built under R version 4.1.2

# Creating a model

All models need to involve an ODE system of the form $$$\label{eq: ode} \frac{\text{d} \textbf{y}(t)}{\text{d}t} = f_{\psi}\left(\textbf{y}(t), t\right),$$$ where $$f_{\psi}: \mathbb{R}^D \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^D$$ with parameters $$\psi$$. As an example we define an ODE system $$$\label{eq: sho} f_{\psi}\left(\textbf{y}, t\right) = \begin{bmatrix} y_2 \\ - y_1 - \theta y_2 \end{bmatrix}$$$ describing a simple harmonic oscillator, where $$\psi = \{ k \}$$ and dimension $$D = 2$$. The Stan code for the body of this function is

sho_fun_body <- "
vector[2] dy_dt;
dy_dt[1] = y[2];
dy_dt[2] = - y[1] - k*y[2];
return(dy_dt);
"

We need to define the variable for the initial system state at t0 as y0. The ODE system dimension is declared as D and number of time points as N.

N <- stan_dim("N", lower=1)
D <- stan_dim("D")
y0 <- stan_vector("y0", length = D)
k <- stan_param(stan_var("k", lower=0), "inv_gamma(5, 1)")

Finally we declare the parameter k and its prior.

k <- stan_param(stan_var("k", lower=0), prior = "inv_gamma(5, 1)")

The following code creates and compiles the Stan model.

sho <- ode_model(N,
odefun_vars = list(k),
odefun_body = sho_fun_body,
odefun_init = y0)
print(sho)
#> An object of class OdeModel.
#>  * ODE dimension: int D;
#>  * Time points array dimension: int<lower=1> N;
#>  * Number of significant figures in csv files: 18
#>  * Has likelihood: FALSE

As we see, all variables that affect the function $$f_{\psi}$$ need to be given as the odefun_vars argument. The function body itself is then the odefun_body argument. In this function body, we can use the following variables without having to declare them or write Stan code that computes them:

• The ODE state y, which is a vector of same length as dimension of y0.
• Any variables that we give as odefun_vars for ode_model.
• Any variables that are dimensions of odefun_vars.

The initial state needs to be given as odefun_init. See the documentation of the ode_model function for more information.

We could call print(sho$stanmodel) to see the entire generated Stan model code. # Sampling from prior We can sample from the prior distribution of model parameters like so. sho_fit_prior <- sho$sample(
t0 = 0.0,
t = seq(0.1, 10, by = 0.1),
data = list(y0 = c(1, 0), D = 2),
refresh = 0,
solver = rk45(
abs_tol = 1e-13,
rel_tol = 1e-13,
max_num_steps = 1e9
)
)
#> Running MCMC with 4 sequential chains...
#>
#> Chain 1 finished in 0.8 seconds.
#> Chain 2 finished in 0.7 seconds.
#> Chain 3 finished in 0.7 seconds.
#> Chain 4 finished in 0.7 seconds.
#>
#> All 4 chains finished successfully.
#> Mean chain execution time: 0.8 seconds.
#> Total execution time: 3.5 seconds.

We can view a summary of results

print(sho_fit_prior)
#> An object of class OdeModelMCMC.
#>  * Number of chains: 4
#>  * Number of iterations: 1000
#>  * Total time: 3.488 seconds.
#>  * Used solver: rk45(abs_tol=1e-13, rel_tol=1e-13, max_num_steps=1e+09)

We can obtain the ODE solution using each parameter draw by doing

ys <- sho_fit_prior$extract_odesol_df() We can plot ODE solutions like so sho_fit_prior$plot_odesol(alpha = 0.3)
#> Randomly selecting a subset of 100 draws to plot. Set draw_inds=0 to plot all 4000 draws.

We can plot the distribution of ODE solutions like so

sho_fit_prior$plot_odesol_dist(include_y0 = TRUE) #> plotting medians and 80% central intervals We can plot ODE solution using one draw like so sho_fit_prior$plot_odesol(draw_inds = 45)

# Using different ODE solvers

We generate quantities using a different solver and different output time points t. Possible solvers are rk45(),bdf(), adams(), ckrk(), midpoint(), and rk4(). Of these the first four are adaptive and built-in to Stan, where as the last two take a fixed number of steps and are written in Stan code.

gq_bdf <- sho_fit_prior$gqs(solver = bdf(tol=1e-4), t = seq(0.5, 10, by = 0.5)) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. gq_mp <- sho_fit_prior$gqs(solver = midpoint(num_steps=4), t = seq(0.5, 10, by = 0.5))
#> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ...
#>
#> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds.
#> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds.
#> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds.
#> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds.
#>
#> All 4 chains finished successfully.
#> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds.
#> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds.

We can again plot ODE solution using one draw like so

gq_bdf$plot_odesol(draw_inds = 45) gq_mp$plot_odesol(draw_inds = 45)

# Defining a likelihood

Next we assume that we have some data vector y1_obs and define a likelihood function.

sho_loglik_body <- "
real loglik = 0.0;
for(n in 1:N) {
loglik += normal_lpdf(y1_obs[n] | y_sol[n][1], sigma);
}
return(loglik);
"

In this function body, we can use the following variables without having to declare them or write Stan code that computes them:

• The ODE solution y_sol.
• Any variables that we give as loglik_vars for ode_model.
• Any variables that are dimensions of loglik_vars.

Here we define as loglik_vars a sigma which is a noise magnitude parameter, and the data y1_obs. Notice that we can also use the N variable in loglik_body, because it is a dimension (length) of y1_obs.

sigma <- stan_param(stan_var("sigma", lower=0), prior="normal(0, 2)")
y1_obs <- stan_vector("y1_obs", length=N)

The following code creates and compiles the posterior Stan model.

sho_post <- ode_model(N,
odefun_vars = list(k),
odefun_body = sho_fun_body,
odefun_init = y0,
loglik_vars = list(sigma, y1_obs),
loglik_body = sho_loglik_body)
print(sho_post)
#> An object of class OdeModel.
#>  * ODE dimension: int D;
#>  * Time points array dimension: int<lower=1> N;
#>  * Number of significant figures in csv files: 18
#>  * Has likelihood: TRUE

# Sampling from posterior

Now if we have some data

y1_obs <- c(0.801, 0.391, 0.321, -0.826, -0.234, -0.663, -0.756, -0.717,
-0.078, -0.083,  0.988, 0.878, 0.300, 0.307, 0.270, -0.464, -0.403,
-0.295, -0.186, 0.158)
t_obs <- seq(0.5, 10, by = 0.5)

and assume that initial state y0 = c(1, 0) is known, we can fit the model

sho_fit_post <- sho_post$sample( t0 = 0.0, t = t_obs, data = list(y0 = c(1, 0), D = 2, y1_obs = y1_obs), refresh = 0, solver = midpoint(2) ) #> Running MCMC with 4 sequential chains... #> Chain 1 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 1 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is -inf, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 1 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 1 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 1 #> Chain 1 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 1 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is nan, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 1 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 1 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 1 #> Chain 1 finished in 0.4 seconds. #> Chain 2 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 2 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is nan, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 2 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 2 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 2 #> Chain 2 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 2 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is -inf, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 2 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 2 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 2 #> Chain 2 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 2 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is -inf, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 2 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 2 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 2 #> Chain 2 finished in 0.4 seconds. #> Chain 3 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 3 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Scale parameter is 0, but must be positive! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 3 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 3 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 3 #> Chain 3 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 3 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is nan, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 3 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 3 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 3 #> Chain 3 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 3 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is -inf, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 3 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 3 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 3 #> Chain 3 finished in 0.4 seconds. #> Chain 4 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 4 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is nan, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 4 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 4 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 4 #> Chain 4 Informational Message: The current Metropolis proposal is about to be rejected because of the following issue: #> Chain 4 Exception: Exception: normal_lpdf: Location parameter is nan, but must be finite! (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 139, column 6 to column 60) (in '/var/folders/cj/c_w12skd6mj6x942dt2twtp40000gn/T/Rtmptq2rWx/model-245334ca29.stan', line 166, column 2 to column 62) #> Chain 4 If this warning occurs sporadically, such as for highly constrained variable types like covariance matrices, then the sampler is fine, #> Chain 4 but if this warning occurs often then your model may be either severely ill-conditioned or misspecified. #> Chain 4 #> Chain 4 finished in 0.4 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.4 seconds. #> Total execution time: 2.0 seconds. We fit the posterior distribution of ODE solutions against the data plt <- sho_fit_post$plot_odesol_dist()
#> plotting medians and 80% central intervals
df_data <- data.frame(t_obs, y1_obs, ydim=rep("y1", length(t_obs)))
colnames(df_data) <- c("t", "y", "ydim")
df_data$ydim <- as.factor(df_data$ydim)
plt <- plt + geom_point(data=df_data, aes(x=t,y=y), inherit.aes=FALSE)
plt

# Reliability of ODE solver

Finally we can study whether the solver we used during MCMC (midpoint(2)) was accurate enough. This is done by solving the system using increasingly more numbers of steps in the solver, and studying different metrics computed using the ODE solutions and corresponding likelihood values.

solvers <- midpoint_list(c(4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18))
rel <- sho_fit_post$reliability(solvers = solvers) #> directory 'results' doesn't exist, creating it #> Running GQ using MCMC-time configuration. #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. #> ============================================================== #> (1) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=4) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_1.rds #> ============================================================== #> (2) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=6) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_2.rds #> ============================================================== #> (3) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=8) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_3.rds #> ============================================================== #> (4) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=10) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_4.rds #> ============================================================== #> (5) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=12) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_5.rds #> ============================================================== #> (6) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=14) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.5 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_6.rds #> ============================================================== #> (7) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=16) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.9 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_7.rds #> ============================================================== #> (8) Running GQ with: midpoint(num_steps=18) #> Running standalone generated quantities after 4 MCMC chains, 1 chain at a time ... #> #> Chain 1 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 2 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 3 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> Chain 4 finished in 0.0 seconds. #> #> All 4 chains finished successfully. #> Mean chain execution time: 0.0 seconds. #> Total execution time: 0.9 seconds. #> Saving result object to results/odegq_8.rds print(rel$metrics)
#> 1 0.1176621 2568.697 0.6551239   1.151924 0.05033225
#> 2 0.1163435 2516.645 0.6481001   1.383171 0.05954904
#> 3 0.1191357 2496.489 0.6455019   1.465447 0.06276090
#> 4 0.1168255 2486.756 0.6442629   1.503758 0.06424357
#> 5 0.1184567 2481.337 0.6435767   1.524628 0.06504748
#> 6 0.1155186 2478.024 0.6431573   1.537231 0.06553156
#> 7 0.1143430 2475.851 0.6428822   1.545418 0.06584543
#> 8 0.1130321 2474.350 0.6426921   1.551034 0.06606043
unlink("results")

The mad_odesol and mad_loglik are the maximum absolute difference in the ODE solutions and log likelihood, respectively, over all MCMC draws. The former is denoted MAE in Timonen et. al (2022). Please refer to that paper in order to interpret the pareto_k column. Briefly we note that the Pareto-k values seem to be converging to a value smaller than 0.5, meaning that importance sampling is possible and we don’t need to run MCMC again.

# References

• Timonen et. al (2022). An importance sampling approach for reliable and efficient inference in Bayesian ordinary differential equation models. arXiv